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Stories / Iyá Nassô

Iyá Nassô

Iyá Nassô, known in Brazil as Francisca da Silva, was an important priestess of the Yoruba orixá (deity) Shango, founder of an Afro-Brazilian Candomblé temple, and an African-born slave who obtained freedom and returned to Africa.

Born in Yorubaland (present day Nigeria, Togo, and Benin), Iyá Nassô was enslaved as an adult and shipped to the city of Salvador da Bahia in Brazil. Her Yoruba name suggests she may have been a major figure in the royal court of the Oyo empire. By the late 1780s, Oyo was rocked by internal power struggles resulting in its collapse in 1835. One of the many battles fought during this period was probably responsible for the enslavement of Iyá Nassô. She and one of her sons arrived in Brazil around 1810 and were baptized as Francisca and Domingos. They obtained their freedom sometime before 1822, adopting the surname da Silva.

Iyá Nassô formed a relationship with fellow freedman José Pedro Autran by 1824. In that year Autran became godfather to Thomé, another enslaved son of his wife’s who had been separated from her at the time of her enslavement. This suggests that Iyá Nassô had been informed of her son’s arrival in Brazil and was taking steps to symbolically recreate their kinship. Iyá Nassô and her husband later provided the funds to purchase Thomé’s freedom.

By the early 1830s, the family had attained a privileged degree of economic prosperity and material comfort. They owned at least two houses and some slaves, mostly Yoruba-speaking women. Iyá Nassô founded a temple, Ilê Iyá Nassô Oká, which sometimes functioned in the couple’s home

Political fallout from a slave revolt known as the Malê Rebellion shattered the family’s peace in 1835. Iyá Nassô’s two sons, Thomé and Domingos, were among the more than three hundred Africans imprisoned in the aftermath. Despite week evidence, the two were convicted. Their mother appealed for their sentence to be commuted to deportation, offering to pay their passage herself and swearing to follow them, never to return to Brazil. Her request was granted.  At the end of 1837, Iyá Nassô, her husband, her sons, and around ten of their slaves departed for the West African coast.

The family went to Ouidah (in today’s Benin), where they were offered land and established a new religious community. They also were involved in export trade to Brazil. Two years later, their former slave Marcelina returned to Bahia and assumed leadership of Ile Iyá Nassô Oká. It is unclear how long Iyá Nassô lived after resettling in Ouidah, but she appears to have died before 1859.

Creator

Almieda, James

Online Resources

“Iyá Nassô” in Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography

“Silva, Marcelina Da ‘Obatossi’” in Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography

Bibliography

Castillo, Lisa Earl. "Iyá Nassô." Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography , edited by Ed. Franklin W. Knight. , edited by and Henry Louis Gates Jr.. . Oxford African American Studies Center, http://www.oxfordaasc.com/article/opr/t456/e1044 (accessed Thu Sep 05 11:55:38 EDT 2019).
 

Castillo, Lisa Earl, and Luis Nicolau Parés. “Marcelina da Silva: A Nineteenth-Century Candomblé Priestess in Brazil.” Slavery & Abolition 31, no. 1 (March 2009): 1–27.
 

Falola, Toyin, and Matt Childs, eds. The Yoruba Diaspora in the Atlantic World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.


Reis, João José. Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Key Events

c. 1780

Born in the Oyo Empire (today’s Nigeria), possibly in an important position within the royal court. Iyá Nassô has at least two children in Oyo.

c.1810

Iyá Nassô is enslaved, probably as part of the wars between Oyo and neighboring kingdoms, and she is brought to Brazil along with one of her sons. They are baptized there as Francisca and Domingos.

By 1822

Iyá Nassô and Domingos obtain their freedoms (the means of doing so is unknown).

1824

Thomé, Iyá Nassô’s son, separated from her when she was enslaved in Oyo, arrives in Brazil. Her partner José Pedro Autran becomes Thomé’s godfather.

Late 1820s-early 1830s

Iyá Nassô establishes Ilê Iyá Nassô Oká, a Candomblé (Afro-Brazilian religious) temple.

1832

José Pedro Autran and Iyá Nassô marry formally in the Catholic church.

1835

The Malê Rebellion, a slave revolt led by Islamicized Yoruba speakers, is suppressed with harsh punishments for Africans. Iyá Nassô’s two sons are sentenced to eight years in prison, which she lobbies to have commuted to deportation. The family and their slaves move to Africa, settling eventually in Ouidah.

By 1859

Iyá Nassô dies in Ouidah.

1986

Ilê Iyá Nassô Oká is the first Afro-Brazilian temple to be recognized by the Brazilian federal government as a national historic heritage site.