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Albina Maria da Conceição

Albina Maria da Conceição was an emancipated African who challenged her illegal re-enslavement in nineteenth-century Brazil.

Albina was born around 1846 in Luanda, the capital of the Portuguese colony of Angola. As a young child she was abducted by a slave merchant and transported to Brazil. Albina’s chest carried a customary hot-iron brand in the form of an “I,” confirming her Luanda origins. The ship that carried her across the Atlantic was captured under antislavery measures intended to suppress the then-illegal trans-Atlantic slave trade.

Sent on to Rio de Janeiro, Albina was delivered to the lieutenant and engineer Pedro Bandeira de Gouveia, who was expected to educate her as a domestic servant. At that time, liberated Africans like Albina were compelled to remain in Brazil to learn Portuguese and the Christian religion. They were to work under the protection or custody of the state or free persons, under the promise of a future life as free people. Full emancipation almost never happened.

Albina traveled with Gouveia’s family to Belém, capital of Pará province, where she was placed in the custody of provincial president Dr. Fausto Augusto de Aguiar. Custody of Albina was then ceded to the family of the physician and politician, Joaquim Frutuoso Pereira Guimarães. Mariana Pimenta Cabedo, Guimarães’s widow, treated Albina as a slave and sold her to Ignácia Bucheira, who later sold her to Anna Fillipa, who in turn sold her to Tiburcio. Albina eventually came to be owned by Antonio Joaquim Nogueira, who sold her again to José dos Santos. Finally, Santos resold Albina to José Soares da Silva Pimentel, owner of a soap factory in Belém.

In 1876, Albina went before the judicial system to demand her freedom. Several free people helped her, including Jose Maria de Sá Lamego, who used the local press to report the story of Albina’s illegal bondage. He also took the case to the provincial president and police authorities without much success. Finally, the Portuguese consul offered help. Albina was technically a Portuguese citizen, having been born in a Portuguese colony. Once the legal process to achieve freedom had started, her last owner agreed to establish a price for manumission.

Although her bondage was illegal, paying the price for freedom avoided a protracted lawsuit that carried with it no guarantees for success. A record of the result of Albina’s struggle for freedom and when she died does not survive. Nonetheless, her life is representative of the many Africans who struggled against illegal enslavement in nineteenth-century Brazil.

Read the full, original biography by José Maia Bezerra Neto in The Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography

View complete story (pdf)

Bibliography

Bezerra Neto, José Maia. Escravidão negra no Grão-Pará (sécs. XVII–XIX). 2d ed. Belém: Editora Paka-Tatu, 2012.


Bezerra Neto, José Maia. “Migrantes do Cativeiro: O tráfico entre províncias e os escravos ingressos no Pará, século XIX.” In Migrações na Amazônia, edited by Cristina Donza Cancela and Rafael Chambouleyron, pp. 41–54. Belém, Brazil: Editora Acaí, 2010.
 

Maia Bezerra Neto, José. "Conceição, Albina Maria da." Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography , edited by Ed. Franklin W. Knight. , edited by and Henry Louis Gates Jr.. . Oxford African American Studies Center, http://www.oxfordaasc.com/article/opr/t456/e527 (accessed Thu Sep 05 11:28:19 EDT 2019).
 

Salles, Vicente. O negro no Pará: Sob o regime da escravidão. 3d ed. Belém, Brazil: Instituto de Artes do Pará, 2005.

Adapted by

James Almeida and Steven J. Niven

Contributing Institutions

Hutchins Center for African & African American Research, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

Oxford University Press (USA) African American Studies Center.

Key Events

1831

The trans-Atlantic slave trade is formally banned in Brazil through a treaty with Great Britain, but traffic continues illegally in great numbers.

c. 1846

Albina is born in Luanda, Angola.

September 4, 1850

The Brazilian parliament passes an act known as the Eusébio de Queiróz Law again banning slave trading, which is finally enforced.

1851

Albina is carried across the Atlantic on an illegal slave trading ship which is eventually seized. She is taken on to Rio de Janeiro as a “liberated African” (liberta). In the custody of the Gouveia family, Albina moves to the city of Belém.

1852

Fausto Aguiar, patriarch of the family, is elected to Parliament and leaves Belém for Rio de Janeiro. This starts a chain of custody changes for Albina where she is sold as a slave from master to master.

1876

With the help of several free people, including Jose Maria de Sá Lamego, Albina demands her freedom before local authorities. When other channels prove unfruitful, the Portuguese consul agrees to help, considering Albina a Portuguese citizen based on her birth in a Portuguese colony.

December 1877

Under pressure from the consul, Albina’s master, José Soares da Silva Pimentel, agrees to allow her to go free in exchange for 392,000 réis (a little over 40 pounds sterling by the exchange rate of the time).